Chinese language is a collection of dialects. Its classification, for the past three decades, has been under a heated debate, as languages including Chinese are dynamic and evolving. Chang (1987) conducted an investigation into English pronunciation features of Chinese learners by splitting Chinese into 8 dialect groups i.e. Northern Chinese (Mandarin), Yueh (Cantonese), Wu, Kan, Northern Min, Southern Min, Hsiang, and Hakka of Mainland China. And currently, Xiong, Zhang and Zhou (2008) stated that Jin dialect, Hui dialect, and Ping and Tu dialect can be separated from previous dialect groups and viewed as three dialect groups in isolation. In addition, in their study, Mandarin group was categorized into 8 sub-groups, including Northeastern Mandarin, Beijing Mandarin, Jilu Mandarin, Jiaoliao Mandarin, Central Plains Mandarin, Lanyin Mandarin, Southwestern Mandarin, and Jianghuai Mandarin, which is congruent with other research. Due to the limited number of learners speaking Hui, Ping and Tu in Hong Kong, the corpus data covers 9 dialect groups, of which Mandarin is provided from 8 Mandarin sub-groups. Therefore, the general English pronunciation features of above-mentioned dialect groups and Mandarin sub-groups will be introduced. Please click on the corresponding area of the dialectal map according to the legend to read more.

Beijing Mandarin Jilu Mandarin Northeastern Mandarin Jiaoliao Mandarin Central Plains Mandarin Jianghuai Mandarin Southwestern Mandarin Lanyin Mandarin Beijing Mandarin Central Plains Mandarin Jiaoliao Mandarin Jiaoliao Mandarin Hsiang Kan Wu Northern Min Southern Min Hakka Yueh Jin Jiaoliao Mandarin Jiaoliao Mandarin Lanyin Mandarin Lanyin Mandarin Lanyin Mandarin

Beijing Mandarin

Speakers whose L1 is Beijing Mandarin come from two different areas, Beijing and Tianjin. The pronunciation features of speakers from these two groups are different. Speakers from Beijing usually use the long vowels to replace the short vowels. When pronouncing the sound. /æ/ does not occur in standard Mandarin and learners tend to nasalise it and pronounce as /an/ or use /a/ to as substitution. /ʌ/ is sometimes replaced by /a/, which is a close approximation to Putonghua phoneme (Wu, 2014; Swan & Smith, 2001). Chinese diphthongs are usually pronounced with quicker and smaller tongue and lip movements than their English counterparts. /θ/ and /ð/ do not occur in Chinese and /θ/ is likely to be replaced by /t/, /f/ or /s/, while /ð/ is likely to be replaced by /d/ or /z/. /tʃ/, /ʃ/ and /dʒ/ are distantly similar to a group of three different Chinese consonants, so many learners use Chinese /tʃ/, /ʃ/ and /dʒ/ instead. Chinese learners tend to add an extra vowel at the end of final consonants because there are few final consonants in Chinese (Swan & Smith, 2001). As for speakers from Tianjin, they use /aɪ/ to replace /æ/ after a bilabial consonant except the /p/ sound. /aɪ/ replaces /e/ after the /l/ or the /h/ sound (Wang, 2006).

Jilu Mandarin

As for speakers from Jilu Mandarin dialect group, the long vowel /iː/ is replaced by /eɪ/ after /f, v, s, r, h, k, g, w/. Using short vowels to replace long vowels is also a salient feature. /ɒ/ is used to replace /ʌ/ (e.g. country /ˈkʌntri/->/ˈkɒntri/). /æ/ is replaced by /e/. /ə/ or /ʊ/ is inserted after plosive consonants /p b, t, d, k, g/. /v/ is replaced by /w/ (Li, 2009). /n/ and /ŋ/ are omitted in the final position. Sometimes, /aɪ/ is replaced by /e/, and /aʊ/ is replaced by /əʊ/ (Wang & Liu, 2013). From aspect of consonants, /s/ and /z/ are replaced by /θ/ and /ð/ respectively. /r/ is replaced by /ʒ/ (e.g. road /rəʊd/->/ʒəʊd/). The consonant clusters /tr/ and /dz/ are pronounced as /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ respectively.

Northeastern Mandarin

Speakers whose first language is Northeastern Mandarin usually pronounce long vowels as short vowels. When pronouncing diphthongs, there is no glide from one vowel to another. /aɪ/ is replaced by /æ/. As for consonants, they usually pronounce /s/ as /ʃ/, /z/ as /dʒ/, /f/ as /v/, /v/ as /w/, and /r/ as /l/. When pronouncing /tʃ/, the speakers use the consonant cluster /ts/ to replace it. /j/ is used to replace /r/, and /ŋ/ is replaced by /n/. The dark /l/ is usually omitted. /s/ and /z/ are replaced by /θ/ and /ð/ respectively. /ə/ or /ʊ/ is inserted after plosive consonants /p, b, t, d, k, g/. In addition, /ə/ is inserted in consonant clusters (Xu, 2016).

Jiaoliao Mandarin

Speakers from Jiaoliao Mandarin group usually use /e/ or /æ/ to replace the diphthong /aɪ/. /eɪ/ is used to replace /iː/ after /l/. /w/ is replaced by /v/. /r/ is replaced by /ʒ/ (Zhang & Chen, 2019). /s/ is used to replace /θ/. /t/ becomes voiced between two vowels (Zhang & Dong, 2019). /dʒ/ is replaced by /tɕ/, and /tʃ/ is replaced by /tɕʰ/. /ʃ/ is replaced by /s/ (Gao, 2012).

Central Plains Mandarin

Speakers whose first language is Xi’an dialect, which is a sub-dialect of Central Plains Mandarin group, usually insert an /ə/ after voiceless consonants. /s/ and /z/ are replaced by /θ/ and /ð/ respectively. An /o/ or an /əʊ/ is used to replace the dark /l/, for example, "fill /fɪl/" is pronounced as /fɪəʊ/ or /fɪo/. /v/ replaced by /w/ is common among Xi’an speakers. As for vowels, the diphthong /aɪ/ is mispronounced as /æ/, for example, "like /laɪk/" is pronounced as /læk/. Substitution of /e/ for /æ/, /ɔː/ for /aʊ/, /ɪ/ for /iː/, and /ʌ/ for /ɑ:/ are also common features of Xi’an speakers (Lv, 2012).

Jianghuai Mandarin

Speakers from Jianghuai Mandarin dialect group use the diphthong /eɪ/ to replace /e/ (e.g. egg /eg/->/eɪg/). Using /ʌ/ to replace /æ/ is another pronunciation feature of Jianghuai Mandarin speakers (e.g. anxiously /ˈæŋkʃəsli/->/ˈʌŋkʃəsli/). The diphthong /ɪə/ is pronounced as /eə/ (e.g. here /hɪə/->/heə/) (Cheng, 2012). /ə/ insertion and /ʊ/ insertion after the final consonant are the two salient features in Jianghuai Mandarin group. As for consonants, /s/ and /z/ are replaced by /θ/ and /ð/ respectively. The dark /l/ is replaced by /ə/. The speakers usually pronounce /l/ as /n/, and /v/ as /w/. /ŋ/ is used to replace /n/. /ʃ/ is replaced by /s/ or /z/, and /r/ is sometimes replaced by /l/ or /z/ (Xu, 2016).

Southwestern Mandarin

Speakers whose first language is Southwestern Mandarin usually have confusion between /n/ and /l/. /z/ is used to replace the /r/ sound. /v/ is replaced by /w/. /ŋ/ is replaced by /n/. /s/ and /z/ are replaced by /θ/ and /ð/ respectively (Xiao, 2014). /ʃ/ is replaced by /ɕ/, or /ʐ/ (Zhou, 2012). As for vowels, /ɪ/ is used to replace /ə/ (Xiao, 2014). /æ/ is replaced by /e/ (e.g. bad /bed/ -> /bæd/). /əʊ/ is replaced by /oʊ/ and /aʊ/ is replaced by /ao/. Short vowels are used to replace long vowels (/uː/->/ʊ/, /iː/->/ɪ/, /ə/->/ɜː/). /ʌ/ is used to replace by /ɑ:/. /aɪ/ is replaced by /e/ (Li, 2011).

Lanyin Mandarin

Speakers who speak Lanyin Mandarin usually insert an /n/ sound after the /æ/ sound or use the diphthong /aɪ/ to replace /æ/. Sometimes /e/ is replaced by /eɪ/ or /aɪ/ (Li, 2015). /eɪ/ is usually replaced by monophthongs /e/ or /eː/, especially when it is followed by /n/ and /m/. In other conditions, /eɪ/ is usually replaced by /iː/ or /ɪ/. /aʊ/ is usually replaced by /ɔː/, /ɒ/, or /ɒʊ/. /ɪə/ is pronounced as /ɪa/ (Wen & Zhou, 2014; Li, 2015). /ʊ/ is replaced by /uː/. an /ə/ is usually inserted after /p/, /t/, /k/, and an /ʊ/ is inserted after /b/, /d/, and /g/ (Zhou, 2013).  As for consonants, /s/ and /z/ are replaced by /θ/ and /ð/ respectively. Mistake /v/ and /w/. /n/ is omitted. Some learners mistake /l/ and /n/ (Wen & Zhou, 2014; Li, 2015). Some learners use /p/ to replace /b/, /t/ pronounced as /d/, and /k/ as /g/ (Zhou, 2013).

Beijing Mandarin

Speakers whose L1 is Beijing Mandarin come from two different areas, Beijing and Tianjin. The pronunciation features of speakers from these two groups are different. Speakers from Beijing usually use the long vowels to replace the short vowels. When pronouncing the sound. /æ/ does not occur in standard Mandarin and learners tend to nasalise it and pronounce as /an/ or use /a/ to as substitution. /ʌ/ is sometimes replaced by /a/, which is a close approximation to Putonghua phoneme (Wu, 2014; Swan & Smith, 2001). Chinese diphthongs are usually pronounced with quicker and smaller tongue and lip movements than their English counterparts. /θ/ and /ð/ do not occur in Chinese and /θ/ is likely to be replaced by /t/, /f/ or /s/, while /ð/ is likely to be replaced by /d/ or /z/. /tʃ/, /ʃ/ and /dʒ/ are distantly similar to a group of three different Chinese consonants, so many learners use Chinese /tʃ/, /ʃ/ and /dʒ/ instead. Chinese learners tend to add an extra vowel at the end of final consonants because there are few final consonants in Chinese (Swan & Smith, 2001). As for speakers from Tianjin, they use /aɪ/ to replace /æ/ after a bilabial consonant except the /p/ sound. /aɪ/ replaces /e/ after the /l/ or the /h/ sound (Wang, 2006).

Central Plains Mandarin

Speakers whose first language is Xi’an dialect, which is a sub-dialect of Central Plains Mandarin group, usually insert an /ə/ after voiceless consonants. /s/ and /z/ are replaced by /θ/ and /ð/ respectively. An /o/ or an /əʊ/ is used to replace the dark /l/, for example, "fill /fɪl/" is pronounced as /fɪəʊ/ or /fɪo/. /v/ replaced by /w/ is common among Xi’an speakers. As for vowels, the diphthong /aɪ/ is mispronounced as /æ/, for example, "like /laɪk/" is pronounced as /læk/. Substitution of /e/ for /æ/, /ɔː/ for /aʊ/, /ɪ/ for /iː/, and /ʌ/ for /ɑ:/ are also common features of Xi’an speakers (Lv, 2012).

Jiaoliao Mandarin

Speakers from Jiaoliao Mandarin group usually use /e/ or /æ/ to replace the diphthong /aɪ/. /eɪ/ is used to replace /iː/ after /l/. /w/ is replaced by /v/. /r/ is replaced by /ʒ/ (Zhang & Chen, 2019). /s/ is used to replace /θ/. /t/ becomes voiced between two vowels (Zhang & Dong, 2019). /dʒ/ is replaced by /tɕ/, and /tʃ/ is replaced by /tɕʰ/. /ʃ/ is replaced by /s/ (Gao, 2012).

Jiaoliao Mandarin

Speakers from Jiaoliao Mandarin group usually use /e/ or /æ/ to replace the diphthong /aɪ/. /eɪ/ is used to replace /iː/ after /l/. /w/ is replaced by /v/. /r/ is replaced by /ʒ/ (Zhang & Chen, 2019). /s/ is used to replace /θ/. /t/ becomes voiced between two vowels (Zhang & Dong, 2019). /dʒ/ is replaced by /tɕ/, and /tʃ/ is replaced by /tɕʰ/. /ʃ/ is replaced by /s/ (Gao, 2012).

Hsiang

Hsiang speakers usually use /l/ to replace /n/, for example, "knife /naɪf/" is pronounced as /laɪf/. In addition, they tend to use /f/ to replace /h/, for example, ‘fly /flaɪ/’ is pronounced as /hlaɪ/ (Lei, 2011).

Kan

Speakers whose first language is Kan show lack of contrast between /n/ and /l/. /f/ is used to replace /h/ before the vowels /u:/ and /ʊ/. /l/ is used to replace /r/ because/l/ is absent in Kan dialect. /f/ is used to replace /v/ when it is in the initial position, and /w/ substitutes the final /v/. /ŋ/ is replaced by /n/. When the sounds /n/ and /m/ are in the final position, they are omitted. No retroflection is made when pronouncing /ʃ/, /tʃ/, and /dʒ/. /s/ and /z/ are replaced by /θ/ and /ð/ respectively. As for vowels, /ɜː/, /ɔː/, and /ɑː/ are shortened (Chen, 2016). /p/, /t/, and /k/ are pronounced as /ph/, /th/, and /kh/ (Guo et al., 2015).

Wu

Speakers who speak Shanghai dialect, which is part of Wu dialect, use /i:/ to replace /ɪ/, for example, "live /lɪv/" is pronounced as /liːv/. An /e/ usually replaces the final /ɪ/ sound, for example, ‘pity /pɪtɪ/’ is pronounced as /pɪte/. /æ/ is usually replaced by /ə/ or /e/, but is replaced by /a/ when it occurs before /s/ and /z/. /ɜː/ is replaced by /ɸ/. /ə/ is used to replace the /ʌ/ sound. Speakers from Shanghai also mistake /u:/, /ɔː/, and /ɒ/. /eɪ/, /aɪ/, /ɔɪ/, /aʊ/ and /əʊ/ are replaced by /e/ or /ə/, /a/ or /aə/, /ɒə/ or /ɔːə/, /ɔː/, and /o/ respectively.

Northern Min

Speakers of Northern Min dialect usually insert an /ə/ in consonant clusters. However, /r/ in consonant clusters is usually omitted. They tend to confuse /f/ with /h/, and /r/ with /l/. When using /h/ to replace /f/, an /ʊ/ sound is inserted after /h/ at the same time (Huang, 2008)

Southern Min

Speakers whose first language is Southern Min use /w/ or /b/ to replace /v/. /f/ is replaced by /h/. /s/ and /l/ are replaced by /θ/ and /ð/ respectively. /l/ is also used to replace /r/. /ʃ/ is replaced by /ɕ/, /tʃ/ is replaced by /tɕʰ/, and /dʒ/ is replaced by /tɕ/ (Wu, 2014). As for vowels, they pronounce long vowels as short vowels. /eɪ/ is replaced by /e/ or /ɪ/. /o/ replaces /əʊ/, and /əɹ/ replaces /eə/ (Lian, 2013).

Hakka

Speakers whose first language is Kan show lack of contrast between /n/ and /l/. /f/ is used to replace /h/ before the vowels /u:/ and /ʊ/. /l/ is used to replace /r/ because/l/ is absent in Kan dialect. /f/ is used to replace /v/ when it is in the initial position, and /w/ substitutes the final /v/. /ŋ/ is replaced by /n/. When the sounds /n/ and /m/ are in the final position, they are omitted. No retroflection is made when pronouncing /ʃ/, /tʃ/, and /dʒ/. /s/ and /z/ are replaced by /θ/ and /ð/ respectively. As for vowels, /ɜː/, /ɔː/, and /ɑː/ are shortened (Chen, 2016). /p/, /t/, and /k/ are pronounced as /ph/, /th/, and /kh/ (Guo et al., 2015).

Yueh

Speakers from Yueh dialect group confuse short vowels with long vowels. Using /e/ to replace /æ/ and using Chinese /aɪ/ to replace the diphthong /aɪ/ are also salient features. An /ə/ sound is inserted in consonant clusters. As for consonants, omission final consonant /m/, /n/, or /ŋ/. The final consonants /t/, /d/, or /g/ is sometimes omitted. /w/ sound is omitted in the consonant cluster /kw/. /v/ is replaced by /w/. /s/ is used to replace /ʃ/ and /θ/. /r/ is replaced by /l/. A /d/ or /s/ is sometimes inserted after the final consonant (Liu & Pan, 2010).

Jin

Speakers from Baotou, which is part of Jin Dialect, use /ɒ/ to replace /əʊ/. The sound /n/ is substituted by /ŋ/, for example, "question /ˈkwestʃən/" is pronounced as /ˈkwestʃəŋ/. An /n/ sound is inserted after /e/ and /æ/, for example, ‘black /blæk/’ is pronounced as /blænk/. Speakers from Baotou mistake /dʒ/ and /dz/, /tʃ/ and /ts/, /ʃ/ and /s/, and /w/ and /v/. /ʒ/ is used to replace the /r/ sound. /s/ and /z/ are used to replace /θ/ and /ð/ respectively (Zhang, 2011).

Jiaoliao Mandarin

Speakers from Jiaoliao Mandarin group usually use /e/ or /æ/ to replace the diphthong /aɪ/. /eɪ/ is used to replace /iː/ after /l/. /w/ is replaced by /v/. /r/ is replaced by /ʒ/ (Zhang & Chen, 2019). /s/ is used to replace /θ/. /t/ becomes voiced between two vowels (Zhang & Dong, 2019). /dʒ/ is replaced by /tɕ/, and /tʃ/ is replaced by /tɕʰ/. /ʃ/ is replaced by /s/ (Gao, 2012).

Jiaoliao Mandarin

Speakers from Jiaoliao Mandarin group usually use /e/ or /æ/ to replace the diphthong /aɪ/. /eɪ/ is used to replace /iː/ after /l/. /w/ is replaced by /v/. /r/ is replaced by /ʒ/ (Zhang & Chen, 2019). /s/ is used to replace /θ/. /t/ becomes voiced between two vowels (Zhang & Dong, 2019). /dʒ/ is replaced by /tɕ/, and /tʃ/ is replaced by /tɕʰ/. /ʃ/ is replaced by /s/ (Gao, 2012).

Lanyin Mandarin

Speakers who speak Lanyin Mandarin usually insert an /n/ sound after the /æ/ sound or use the diphthong /aɪ/ to replace /æ/. Sometimes /e/ is replaced by /eɪ/ or /aɪ/ (Li, 2015). /eɪ/ is usually replaced by monophthongs /e/ or /eː/, especially when it is followed by /n/ and /m/. In other conditions, /eɪ/ is usually replaced by /iː/ or /ɪ/. /aʊ/ is usually replaced by /ɔː/, /ɒ/, or /ɒʊ/. /ɪə/ is pronounced as /ɪa/ (Wen & Zhou, 2014; Li, 2015). /ʊ/ is replaced by /uː/. an /ə/ is usually inserted after /p/, /t/, /k/, and an /ʊ/ is inserted after /b/, /d/, and /g/ (Zhou, 2013).  As for consonants, /s/ and /z/ are replaced by /θ/ and /ð/ respectively. Mistake /v/ and /w/. /n/ is omitted. Some learners mistake /l/ and /n/ (Wen & Zhou, 2014; Li, 2015). Some learners use /p/ to replace /b/, /t/ pronounced as /d/, and /k/ as /g/ (Zhou, 2013).

Lanyin Mandarin

Speakers who speak Lanyin Mandarin usually insert an /n/ sound after the /æ/ sound or use the diphthong /aɪ/ to replace /æ/. Sometimes /e/ is replaced by /eɪ/ or /aɪ/ (Li, 2015). /eɪ/ is usually replaced by monophthongs /e/ or /eː/, especially when it is followed by /n/ and /m/. In other conditions, /eɪ/ is usually replaced by /iː/ or /ɪ/. /aʊ/ is usually replaced by /ɔː/, /ɒ/, or /ɒʊ/. /ɪə/ is pronounced as /ɪa/ (Wen & Zhou, 2014; Li, 2015). /ʊ/ is replaced by /uː/. an /ə/ is usually inserted after /p/, /t/, /k/, and an /ʊ/ is inserted after /b/, /d/, and /g/ (Zhou, 2013).  As for consonants, /s/ and /z/ are replaced by /θ/ and /ð/ respectively. Mistake /v/ and /w/. /n/ is omitted. Some learners mistake /l/ and /n/ (Wen & Zhou, 2014; Li, 2015). Some learners use /p/ to replace /b/, /t/ pronounced as /d/, and /k/ as /g/ (Zhou, 2013).

Lanyin Mandarin

Speakers who speak Lanyin Mandarin usually insert an /n/ sound after the /æ/ sound or use the diphthong /aɪ/ to replace /æ/. Sometimes /e/ is replaced by /eɪ/ or /aɪ/ (Li, 2015). /eɪ/ is usually replaced by monophthongs /e/ or /eː/, especially when it is followed by /n/ and /m/. In other conditions, /eɪ/ is usually replaced by /iː/ or /ɪ/. /aʊ/ is usually replaced by /ɔː/, /ɒ/, or /ɒʊ/. /ɪə/ is pronounced as /ɪa/ (Wen & Zhou, 2014; Li, 2015). /ʊ/ is replaced by /uː/. an /ə/ is usually inserted after /p/, /t/, /k/, and an /ʊ/ is inserted after /b/, /d/, and /g/ (Zhou, 2013).  As for consonants, /s/ and /z/ are replaced by /θ/ and /ð/ respectively. Mistake /v/ and /w/. /n/ is omitted. Some learners mistake /l/ and /n/ (Wen & Zhou, 2014; Li, 2015). Some learners use /p/ to replace /b/, /t/ pronounced as /d/, and /k/ as /g/ (Zhou, 2013).

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